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(assignment instructions is in bold and italic)argue your

    (assignment instructions is in bold and italic)’argue’ your point of view on this short summary, state your current position on the issue being discussed in the summary. and give your overall opinion of the summary.Each student is asked to argue with leading social scientists, health care professionals, and social commentators controversial issues in addiction. It is hoped that by developing critical debate-style thinking skills each student will enhance their personal judgments on a variety of controversial issues. In forming your opinions a student should not feel confined to adopt one or the other of the positions presented. Some readers may see important points on both sides of an issue and may construct for themselves a new and creative approach. Such an approach might incorporate the best of both sides, or it might provide an entirely new vantage point for understanding the issue. Each student is asked to first read a summary of the issue . ‘argue’ your point of view on this short summary, state your current position on the issue being discussed in the summary. and give your overall opinion of the summary.(Summary starts here)Forum 2: Is Total Abstinence the Only Choice For Alcoholics?The fundamental question here is, Must substance dependent individuals totally abstain from alcohol or drug use or can they benefit from other types of treatment? This issue was initially raised in the 1970’s, when Linda and Mark Sobell presented research showing that alcoholics who were taught to drink socially were less likely to relapse than people who were told to abstain from alcohol. (This study was subsequently criticized for its methodology). In a follow up study supported by the RAND Corporation in the 1970’s, it was found that the majority of alcoholics who went through formal treatment were drinking moderately or occasionally up to 18 months after treatment. Most did not resume their abusive use of alcohol. A criticism of this study was that it did not follow those in treatment long enough-a four-year follow-up revealed that many had relapsed.Many people who attempt to completely stop addictive behaviors fail. If a person tries several times to abstain from drinking alcohol or other self destructive behaviors and cannot stop, perhaps other forms of treatment may be worth pursuing. However, moderation as a treatment goal may not prove to be productive because alcohol-the central element to the addiction is still present in the alcoholic’s life.Rather than trying to identify the one best type of treatment (total abstinence) for substance abusers, it may be better to match people with the type of treatment that is best for them. The danger of constantly telling people that they have no control is that eventually they may come to believe it. On the other hand, if you tell someone that, with time and effort, one can change his/her habits, make improvements to troublesome aspects of his/her life, and reverse the course of his/her addictive patterns the individual may be more willing to recognize the signs of his/her progress.(References ) Kimberly Walitzer and Gerard Connors review various forms of alcohol treatment in ”Treating Problem Drinking,” Alcohol Research and Health (vol. 23, no. 2, 1999). Keith Humphrey, in ”Professional Interventions That Facilitate 12-Step Self-Help Group Involvement,” Alcohol Research and Health (vol. 23, no 2, 199), discusses the benefit of Alcoholics Anonymous when used in conjunction with other types of therapy. Two articles that are critical of Alcoholics Anonymous are Stanton Peele’s ”All Wet: The Gospel of Abstinence and Twelve-Step, Studies Show, Is Leading American Alcoholics Astray,” The Sciences (March/April 1998) and Michael Lemanski’s ”The Tenacity of Error in the Treatment of Addiction,” The Humanist (May/June 1997). Finally, a number of medications have been used to successfully treat addictive individuals.

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